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World Kid Quilt

Welcome graphic

As women enter paid work, they are conflicted because their caregiving responsibilities at home are still there. As nations struggle to address this we see a fascinating array of solutions. This site looks at what we can learn from the various strategies with the ultimate goal of respecting women and men in all their roles that benefit others - both the unpaid and paid roles.
What we see mainly is that it is not enough to welcome women into paid labor- we also must value the work they always did and still do at home.

Our Mission

a baby quilt for the world
THE BEAUTIFUL PATCHWORK-
WATCHING FREE CHOICE IN ACTION


INTERNATIONAL POLICIES ON CHILDREN, FAMILIES CHILDCARE
Dec 2004

Algeria
1996 – this is the poorest country in Europe. The average household income 90 euros a month and 75% of homes have no indoor toilet or running water. Since the overthrow of communism, public services have deteriorated. Many have been forced to migrate from villages to town to seek work and child abandonment is common.Durres Children’s Homes set up emergency homes for 50 children. It focuses on reuniting children with birth or extended families or finding adoptive parents
1998-mat leave is funded 100% by social security and is for 980 days


Angola
1998- mat leave is 100% funded by employers not the state
2004 – during prolonged warfare thousands have died and many have suffered malnutrition, disease, breakdown of health, water, sanitation and other services. Angola is littered with more landmines than is any other country in the world. International Medical Corps is trying to ensure immunization of children against measles, and provides health education and birth attendants. Infant mortality is 172 for every 1000 live births and child mortality is 295 for every 1000 live births.

Argentina
1991- population of 34 million, 85% urban. Only 58% have medical insurance. Life expectancy is 71 and infant mortality is 22 per 1000 live births. Fertility rate is 2.8. Age distribution is young with 46% of the people being under 25. Income discrepancies are large. Medical coverage is linked to occupation and the state spends 6 times as much on care of the rich as on care of the poor. 23% of the poor are women with children
1988 -retirment pension for housewives
There is family allowance financed through 4-19% of payroll
2004- AmericSpan has set up a nonprofit organization to offer daily meals, medical clinics, skills training, a barber shop and child care for 40 children in Cordoba, Argentina.

Australia
1902 – vote for women
· -1980- gave more family allowance per child in large family
· 1987 – child poverty rate is 18% (Shelley Phipps)
1995- those on income support (social assistance) or lower wage earners with children under 16 would be considered for a new parenting allowance

1997 – Endeavor Forum launched complaint at UN about discrimination in tax policy against homemakers
1997- government spends $2 billion on childcare,gives child care cash rebate of $28.65 for one child or $64.90 for two and this is not means tested so the rich get it. Some also get $95.50 in childcare assistance that is means tested to exclude family incomes over $65,728. The mother who cares for children at home gets $30 per week and this is means tests at annual family income of $27,000 or less. Taxation treats husbands as individuals and does not allow joint taxation or acknowledge dependent spouse costs. The social security system however assumes spouses at home are dependents and excludes them from welfare payments even if their personal income is zero.
1999- there is parental leave even to those who are at home with kids and there is universal family allowance
2001- parents have a voucher-type system for school education
2001- Australia demands the second longest working hours in the OECD countries.
2002 – baby bonus allows mothers at home to claim tax rebates of $500-2500 per year for up to five years. PM Highfield says payment is only for one baby and only for babies born after July 2001. The amount is not means tested. Australia has a fertility rate at 1.7.
2002- child care centers subsidized by taxpayers make huge profits. ABC share price went from $2 million to $14 million.
2002 Senator Nick Minchin wants mat benefits to all mothers instead of current criterion of involvement in paid labor force.
2003- child care becomes an election issue. Pro Gowards wants mat leave only to mothers with full time employment and who return to full time paid work a few months after giving birth. PM John Howard prefers a baby care payment, not means tested, to all mothers for the first year after giving birth
2003 – government gives $700 for the first six moths of mat leave then unpaid 6 months leave
2004 –to address low birth rate national treasurer promises $2,000 birth grant for every baby born after June 2004. He hopes each couple will have at least 3 chidlren.

Austria
1980 – there is a birth grant
1998 -debates a monthly voucher for care of kids under age 4 –
1998- There is no family allowance. There are however family tax credits for children, lone parents and one-earner couples. There is a universal child benefit
1980s – gives more family allowance to large family
and gives a birth grant
1995- debate starts about child care voucher claiming it
would reduce family poverty, provide basic income for
parents, value caregiving as work, secure the future of
children and correct gender imbalance of not valuing traditional women’s work (Anthony Atkinson)
-1997 – income tax on individuals only
2000- 73.3% of childless women are employed for pay. 52.7% of women with 3 children one of whom is under 5 are employed for pay (Family Observer)
2001 – parental leave benefits are based on child and needs not on criterion of parental paid employment (Family Observer)
2001 – parent can purchase care or pay themselves for home care to reduce loss of income (Family Observer)
2001-paid nursing breaks are required of at least one hour per day for women who work outside the home
2002- the parental leave package has been replaced by a child care benefit that is claimable by not just those who use daycare but by housewives, students, the self-employed, low-income parents and farmers. If amounts to 14.53 euros per day and is only reduced if the child’s caregiver earns over 14.600 Euros per year. (not family income just caregiver income).Single parents get an additional supplement of 6.06 euros per day which act as loans that are repayable if there is income over a certain amount. The child care benefit is claimable by either parent till the child is 30-36 months. The caregiver is counted as having paid premiums for health coverage till the child is 4. There is also a supplement for a handicapped child and a family allowance to age 26, which increases as the child ages – 105.4 euros to age 10, 123.6 euros to age 19, 145.4 euros to age 26.

Belgium –

1920 –women got local vote
1949 – women got national vote
1976 –divorce law made family assets be shared
1980s – gives more per child allowance in large family
1991 – 40.3% of women are employed for pay 22.6% of them part-time. Child care from age 3 is run by local authorities but with state subsidy. 95% of children from 1.5 to 5 are in ecoles maternelles from 8:30 to 3:30 daily ( 7hours). 80% of private child care costs are deductible up to $12.50 per day. There is a tax deduction of 10,000 francs (US $362) a year for all parents with a child under 3. Mat leave is 14 weeks, 8 of those after birth. Full pay for first month and 75% pay for the rest. There is no parental leave but there are 6-12 months of family leave. Birth rate is 11.9 per 1000.
1997 – income tax on individuals but 30% can go to spouse
who is taxed separately
1998-there is a birth grant
1998- no family allowance. There are tax credits for children, lone parents, one-earner couples, widows and other dependents and children with a disability. There is a universal child benefit
1998 – there is free child care for all children over age 3, not means tested
2000- children in poverty rate is 4.4%
2001 -allows parent to deduct a certain amount from taxable income even if they do not use external child care (family Observer_)
2002 – government is working towards compulsory cap on work week of 35 hours (Jonathan Gersburny , Essex
2003 European Federation of Women Working in the Home organizes Day of Invisible Work. World Movement of Mothers campaigns to add a statistical category of ‘non-remunerated active person’ in national accounts
2004-children under age 6 months are usually in maternal care. From 6-months to one year 52% use nonparental care, often family daycare or informal. Those aged 1.-2.5 years 55% use daycare but only 28% fulltime. Those aged 2-5 to 4 ,31% use daycare, 33% use informal family daycare and 38% use informal care. Daycares are open 10-12 hours a day. Preprimay school operates 8:30 – 5:30 and is used by over 90% of children. It operates half days Wednesdays. 75% of mothers of under 5 year olds have income. Mat leave is 15 weeks. Paid paternity lave is 10 days. There is a tradition of supporting at-home parenting of handicapped children

Bolivia
1986- Medecins sans Frontieres enters to address health problems of population including children
1986 –70% of the population of LaPaz lives in poverty with high maternal mortality rates and high levels of malnutrition and respiratory infection
1993 – parents pay $2.50 per month for daycare

Bulgaria –
1951- labor code requires employers to pay full minimum wage to pregnant women even if they can’t do full-time paid work. There is also leave for up to 60 days to care for a sick child under 16
1980- gives more per child if large family
gives a birth grant
1998- mat leave is funded 100% by the state and is for 120 days
2004- a child welfare initiative funded by the World Bank is working to de-institutionalize children and address child abandonment as cost-effective alternatives to institutionalized child care

Cameroon
1998—mat leave is funded 100% by social security and lasts for 980 days
2004 – the country of 16 million is 23% women of child-bearing age. Fertility rate is 6.1, or 42.5 per 1000. The mortality rate is 17.5 per 1000. Poverty rates are high but children are highly valued in society. International religious groups sometimes come in to set up centers to help with health problems and caregiving issues of families

Canada
1918 – women get the vote
1945- family allowance is begun
1980- 10% of children live in poverty
1986- family allowance is de-indexed
1987 – child poverty rate is 17.8% (Shelley Phipps)
1989 – families pay 45% of their income in tax
1991 – 17.7% of families with children live in poverty
1991 – 44% of women earn money, 20% of them part-time. 90% of kids are in home-based care or private or for profit centers.
Birth rate is 14.8 per 1000. There is provision for no fault-divorce after one year separation or after 3 years without consent of spouse. Marriage assets are split on divorce
1995 –family allowance is removed
1996 census included 3 questions on unwaged work
1997 – Quebec adopts $5 a day daycare but excludes benefits to parental or family-member care.
1998 spousal deduction is less than personal deduction. Individual is tax base only ( no income-sharing)
1999 – child poverty rate 13.9%
2000- children in poverty 15.5%
2000- lone mother on welfare gets 45-73% of poverty line income or 23-38% of average worker wage
2000- mat leave extended to one year at 55-60% of earnings
2000 women earn 63 % of what men earn in wages
2003- mat leave is sometimes ¼ pay for 6 months leave. Mothers are eligible for 15 weeks of government benefits plus 35 weeks for either parent at $413 per week maximum. Some companies top up the benefit. Ontario requires mother to have had same employer for past 13 weeks. Alberta requires her to have had same employer for past year. Quebec wants federal government to fund new mothers at 80% salary
2004 –Canada funds 20% of operating costs of daycares. 16% of children attend.

Central Africa
1998- mat leave is funded partly by social security and lasts 90 days
2005 – 26,000 children are reported to have quit school prematurely, between ages 6-15 to engage in labor for money. International community tries to intervene to help them continue their education

Chad
1998- mat leave is partly funded by social security and lasts 90 days
1991- 20% of Africa’s children die before age 5. 118 African babies of every 1000 born die before age 1. Most who die succumb to malnutrition, diarrhea or childhood disease for which they could have been vaccinated.- pneumonia, measles, whooping cough, tetanus, TB. Africare sends in basic medical services to one million children in 13 African countries including Chad to immunize and to help mothers give sugar, salt and water or oral rehydration to sick children. Traditionally villages have birth attendants. Trained midwives give maternal care. Africare helps these women refer for further care the difficult medical cases.


Chile
1980s – financed family allowance through 22% of payro9ll
2001- -parents have a voucher-style system for education costs
`2000- older women are recognized for making significant unpaid contributions to families, caring for grandchildren and doing domestic duties


China
1980 –one child policy fined parents who have more than one offspring
1996 mat leave is given and is not conditional on paid employment
1997 – Economic Planning Agency is developing a system to estimate the monetary value of home care of children and older people
2000- there are nurseries for all children from age 56 days on
2002 –revising its one-child policy. Those who have more than one child pay a social compensation fee to the state instead of being fined. Many have disobeyed the 1980 law and 80% of children under 14 live in families wiht other siblings
2004 – 117 boys now to 100 girls. Ultrasound to determine sex for selective abortion is illegal but suspected to be common.

Colombia – 1994 – full daycare for 38 cents a day. Parents
and government share costs

Costa Rica

1999- 30% of children are born without declared fathers. These children get no social security benefits, child support or rights to inheritance.
‘002- Mothers are permitted to name the father and if he does not admit paternity,may force him to submit to DNA test. If he refuses he has to pay child support automatically. 8000 Costa Rican women have used the new law in the past year and the number of children without a declared father has fallen to 10%.

Cuba


1959 – daycare and preschool for 98% of children aged 0-6

1992 – Educa a Tu Hijo –program for children aged 7-14 with their families to go on park outings. 5-6 year olds go with families to weekly classes.
2000- there is child care for babies as young as 45 days old

Czechoslovakia

1980s – gives birth grant
gives family allowance to age 25
1985 – divorce rates increase to 32% of marriages
1986 – gave monthly allowance for children and a year’s paid maternity leave to moms at home
2004 – housing shortage means that 1/3 of families wait 5 years to just get their own apartment. The 3 generation household is common, enabling mothers to continue theier education and providing child-care grandmothers for the young

Denmark –
1915 – vote for women
1980 gave more per child in large families
1991 – 45.5% of wmoen are in paid labor, 41.9% of them part-time however. Child care from 6 months to two years for 55% of children – in child-minding homes or a crèche. Ages 3-6 years there are publicly run kindergartens. Mat leave is 25 weeks, one of which is before birth, at 90% salary. There are 2 weeks of paternity leave. Birth rate is 11 per 1000. 44.5 % of children are born to unmarried persons. Family allowance exists for all children under age 16. Child support is strictly enforced.
1995 – had tried near universal daycare and found that divorce, suicide, sickness and stress resulted. The government in 1994 then offered a year’s parental leave to be home with child under age 9
1995- at Beijing conference a paper is presented by Danish government observiing that the universal daycare experiment backfired. Equal pay, gender equity among jobs, free abortion, paternity leave for men was accomplished but women suffered dissatisfaction, high rates of divorce, suicide, sickness, and stress that become a ‘national syndrome’. The state decided in 1994 to offer a year’s parental leave per child under age 9 and mothers ‘streamed home in thousands’ The government has since found that parents now are opting for a range of care choices. and over 50% of those under age 3 are giving parental care.
1997 – individual tax base but married spouse can transfer
unusued personal allowance to spouse
1998- no family allowance. There are transferable family tax credits and there is a universal child benefit with a lone parent supplement
2000- children in poverty 5.1%
2001- parents have a voucher type system for school education2004- child care is seen as for play not for education.

Djibouti –

1998- mat leave is partly funded by employers and lasts 90 days

Dominican Republic
1999- many child-care providers are 60-90 years old

Finland –
1906 –vote for women
1948 –child allowance is begun
1970 child allowance is raised
1973 –Children’s Daycare Act – daycares are run by municipalities
1980 – gives more per child allowance in large families
gives a birth grant
1990- child allowance is raised again and is now 3 times what it was in the 1970s
1990- children have an unconditional entitlement to daycare under age 3 but there is also a home care child allowance for care of children at home
1997 – taxes based on individual
1997- the state funds children’s allowance, daycare and parental allowance. What it spends on daycare it nearly matches for what it spends on child allowance. It also funds child home care allowance, housing allowance, home help and private child care.
1998 –there is no family allowance. There are no family tax credits. There is a universal child benefit and there is a lone parent supplement
1998- of 5 million inhabitants there are 1.8 children per family
1998- there is free child care for all children under age 3
1998--social policy aims to provide parents with ‘material and psychological means to have and raise children’
2000- children in poverty 4.3%
2000-universal family allowance, higher per child in larger family. Family allowance is not taxed
2000- single mothers not getting child support get publicly funded advance maintenance payments

2000- women;’s wages are 77% of what men earn
2001- publicly funded daycare plus a cash benefit for 3 years of home-based care. The home care allowance is 40% of average monthly wage
2001- 42% of preschoolers are in municipal daycare. Cost adjusted to family income and free for the poor.
2004 – family allowance for children under 17, depends on number of children in family and is not taxable
· -2004 – maternity allowance for 154 days and extra if chemical exposure, paid every 25 days
2004 – parental allowance for 158 weekdays and 60 days per extra baby if twins and extended if premature birth and also if child adopted till age 7
2004 – partial parental allowance if parent is employed part time
-2004 you get either child care funding or home allowance under age 3 and daycare subsidy till child starts school.
2004 – family-provided daycare in home is registered as ‘private daycare”
2004- all children in school get a free meal a day containing 1/3 of the daily nutritional requirements.

France

1944 –women got the vote
1975 - France gives 22% of base wage for second child and 33% for additional.
1980 – gave 22% of base wage for second child and 33% for each additional child for family allowance. It gives a birth grant
1980- government spends 31% of its GDP on social programs
financed family allowance through 13.5% of payroll
gives a birth grant
· The preschool for kids from age 3 is state run 1/6 of two year olds go to nursery school which is free
1985 divorce law splits marriage assets evenly. 40% of child support payments are not being made but salary can be garnisheed
1986- 80% of parents express preference for home care of children Government introduced a home care allowance for patens of children under 3
1991 – 42% of women in paid labor, 23% of whom are in part-time. State gives incentives to try to raise birth rate. Most parents use private child –care services. State-supported child care centers for ages 2.5 to 5. Child care costs are deductible from income tax. Birth rate is 13.8 per 1000 pop.

1997 –taxation based on household income
1998- France supports parents and daycare neutrally (CPRN)
1998- there is no family allowance and there are no family tax credits. There is a universal child benefit but the maximum is income related
1998- there is free child care for children over age 3, not means tested
1998- employers are forbidden paying over 90 hours of overtime annually and there are calls for a 35 hour maximum work week. Lower tax rates are given to employers with such programs. Many employees object they are now asked to do 39 hours of work in 35.
1998 – tax is based on household income and is computed per adult -dividing household income by number of adults living there
1998-there is a community crèche for ages 3 months to 3 years and costs depend on household income
1998- family allowance from state. Centers are close to the mom’s location and daycare exists for drop in just a few hours per day also
1999 – child poverty rate is 7.5%
1999 – parental leave is given to those who are at home with kids and there is a universal family allowance
1999- free state-run nurseries for those aged 2-3 but there is a child bonus program to all parents
2000 –imposed mandatory 35 hour work week in large companies for the same money and more family time
2000- single mothers not getting child support get publicly funded advance maintenance payments
2000- women earn 88% of what men earn in wages
2001- paid nursing breaks of one hour a day at least are required for women who work outside the home (Moms for Milk)
2002 – employed mothers may take 4 month leave at 88% pay and get a chance of longer leave, unpaid. Single mothers get cash payments until the child is 3.
2002- ecole maternelle is for 3-5 year olds and is full day. Teachers get high wages
2002-community crèche for ages 3 months to 3 years. Costs are adjusted for household income and can be 98-355 francs per day. Family allowance from state covers the rest of the cost. They operate weekdays only and 7:30 AM to 7PM. Daycare exists also but is for drop-in and only a few hours a day
2004-ecole maternelles are free and have the same curriculum across the country. Teaches are highly paid and child care centers are publicly funded.

Germany


1950-pre unification- West Germany women married later and had fewer abortions than did East German women. Women in East Germany were forced to work outside the home shortly after giving birth and daycare was provided.
1987- child poverty rate is 8.8% (Shelley Phipps)
1997 – household tax unless they request individual tax
1998 – at –home parents get money, tax incentives and
pension benefits (CPRN)
1990- women marry at 25.1 in East Germany but 26.5 in the West Men marry at 27.1 in the East and 29 in the West. Differences may be because those in the East want to take advantage of lower housing and childcare costs to those who are married
1991 – 8.8% of families with children live in poverty
1996- daycare is funded by the state and parents pay according to income. The workday is 8-12 and 2-6 for everyone. The stores are open Sunday and most stores close at 1PM Saturday.Therefore child care is only needed during parts of the day and parents see a lot of their children.
1998- there are allowances for old age, lone paenthood, children, and owner-occupants with children. Thee are no family tax credits. There is a universal child benefit with a maximum that is income related
1998 – employers provide up to 3 years of parental leave. The tax system favors one-earner families though child-care is available
1998 –joint or individual filing for spouses. Personal allowance for married person is double that of single person. Maried taxpayer filing jointly pays no income tax unless couple’s income is 4 times that of single person
1999-parliament proposed requiring men to pay salaries to wives at 5% of man’s income, and compelling men to show their wives their bank accounts. In Germany 40% of women work outside the home.
2000- mat benefits go to all new mothers, not tied to paid labor force participation
2000-single mothers get publicly funded advance maintenance payments if they are not getting child support
2001- government is now considering pension credits for those who provide child or elder care (Pro John Myles U of T)
2001 _ salary for being at home with child is being discussed (Family Observer)
2001- paid nursing breaks are required for women of at least one hour per day if they work outside the home (Moms for Milk)
2002 – Government converts preschool child care system to an individual grant. The Kia Card is a voucher so parents can opt for any child care arrangement they prefer
2003- fertility rate is 1.34 (it was 2.03 30 years earlier) German women get monthly subsidies per child till age 18 and can take a 3 year maternity/parental leave from paid work. Daycares operate 7AM to 3PM and primary school ends at noon.
Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder promised women free choice between family life and career
2003 – average paid work year is 1444 hours (1815 in US)

Greece
1929- women got the vote locally
1952 – women got the national vote
1983 – mutual consent divorce after one year. Women get 1/3 of assets. Women do not get part of husband’s pension. Child support is not enforced
1991 – 34% of women earn money. 14 weeks of paid mat leave, 7 to be taken after birth. Women can take time off paid work to nurse babies. Unpaid parental leave of 3 months for each parent and 6 months for single parents. Unpaid leave to look after sick children Birth rate is 10 per 1000 population
1997 – household tax of income
1998- there is a family tax allowance for persons with a disability. There are family tax credits for children and one earner couples and there is a universal child benefit
1998- mat leave is funded entirely by social security and is for 15 weeks
2001- paid one hour minimum nursing breaks required for moms who work outside the home

Hungary

1980 – mother got cash allowance of 40% of average female
wage if she was home with child till age 3
gives more per child in large families
1991- nurseries for half of all 3-6 year olds and crèches for others
1996- a child care grant is given so women with paid jobs can be home till the child is 3 or if child is in state nurseries. The grant is 40-50% of a mother’s average wage
1998- mat leave is funded 100% by social security and is for 24 weeks
India
`1994- child care costs 27 cents per day per child and government pays most of the cost

Indonesia

2003 government moves to outlaw sex before marriage, living together outside of wedlock and homosexuality.


Ireland
1980- National Women’s council presses to get equality
rights for homemakers
1980 – gives more per child in large families re family allowance
1997 – choice of individual or household tax
1997 – govt will tally unwaged work as part of the 18 country European Time Use Survey (Eurostat). National Women’s Council is pressing to get women who do unwaged work to be included for benefits the same as those who are registered as unemployed
1998- there are allowances for widows, widowers, lone parents and for caring for disabled children. There are family tax credits for children and other dependents and income-dependent spouses. There is no universal child benefit
1998 – free child care for all those under age 3
2003 – Womn in the Home organization has over half a million members, one eighth of the population of the country

Israel
-


1980 – give more child allowance in large family
finances family allowance through 2.3% of payroll
-family allowance goes to age 18 if a student
1991- kindergarten for all five year olds and child care for half of all 3-4 year olds

Italy

1945- women got the vote
1972 – divorce is legal. Assets are divided
1991- 35.5% of women have paid employment though 9.5% are part-time. 42% of women with child under 10 have paid employment. 5% of children under 3 are in publicly funded crèches. More than 87% of children 3-5 are in publicly funded primary schools run by government, municipality or the church, open 8-10 hours a day and parents pay 1/3 of the cost, according to income. There are no tax deductions for child care. The birth rate is the lowest in Europe at 9 per 1000.

1996 – homemakers won right to a pension at age 57 if they
paid 5 years of social security contributions.
1980s – family allowance funded 17.5% through payroll
family allowance goes to age 26 if a student
1997 – individuals taxed separately and also taxed
on income of minor children
1998- there is no family tax allowance , no family tax credit but there is a universal child benefit
1998 – tax basedon indivdial icome. Credits for a dependent spouse are 8 times as large as credit for each dependent child
`2000- children in poverty 20.5%
2001- paid one hour minimum nursing breaks are required for moms who work outside the home
2003- Naples offers to pay couples over $10,000 for every baby they have, to raise the birth rate
2004 –abortions, legal since 1978 and free, may now have to be paid for after first abortion.
2004-Italian government offers $1,000 baby bonus for second child born to any woman Birth rate is one of the lowest in Europe.

Jamaica
2001- Morning Out for Mothers offers encouragement and interaction for moms who work in the home to help address the career-family pressure


Japan
1980- government spends 15% of its GDP on social programs
1996- national census counted unpaid work
1997 –individual income tax base only
1997 Institute of Economics has set up a study team on counting unpaid work in the national census
1998 – tax based on individual income. There is a basic allowance for a dependent spouse the same size as allowance for each dependent child and there is a special allowance for those with low income
2001 –birth rate is 1.34

2002 – government urges people to have more children
2002 – birth rate is 1.35
Some suggest low birth rate is due to 18 hour work days, high cost of raising children

Jordan
1993 – government funds programs to help parents recognize disabilities (does not fund taking child from parent)

Kenya –
1994 – state gives some funding but cities pay for daycare centres

Luxembourg
1997 – household income tax base
1998 – there is a lone-parent allowance and there are family tax credits for lone parents. There is a universal child benefit
2001- paid one hour min. nursing breaks are required for mothers who work outside the home

Mexico
2000 - children in poverty 26.2%

Mongolia

1990-ap Opposition Motherland Democratic Coalition is offering $10.50 Cdn per month support for every child under age 18 funded by general tax revenue. Average income in country is $600 Cdn per year


Netherlands (Holland)
1980 – gives more child allowance in large families
finances family allowance through 5.1% of payroll
1991 – Netherlands couples pay 28.3% of gross earnings for social security programs
1993- it gives universal family allowance. The Queen of the Netherlands even got family allowance
1997 – individual income tax
1998 – parents are helped with part-time paid work
options and flexible hours so they can care for children
`1998 – there is a lone parent allowance and there are tax credits for single-earner couples. There is a universal child benefit
1998- 9% of children under age 4 are in daycare. It is expensive. 75% of children 0-4 are in informal care, called ‘guest care’ These may be babysitter, toddler group, child minder, nursery, host parent or after school.
1998 – 6% of mothers of those under age 10 work for pay full-time and 41% work for pay part-time.
1999- employer and municipal government taxes help fund social programs for child-care
1999- 16 weeks of mat leave and a universal family allowance covering 33% of cost of raising a child (CPRN)
2000- lone mother on welfare gets 75% of average worker’s wage
2001- parents have a voucher-type system for education
2001- paid one hour min. nursing breaks are required for women who work outside the home
2003- paid work year is 1444 hours or less (1815 in US)


New Zealand
1893 – vote for women
1980 – finances family allowance through 7.5% of payroll
family allowance goes to age 18 if a student
1998- mat leave is not funded by the state
2004- there is a 3 year training course for daycare workers. Daycares are used by nearly all children under age 5 at some point. There is frequent assessment by government for health and safety. A ministry of education is responsible for children’s programs
up to age 4. Government funds 85% of operating costs. The program is for 6 hours a day uniformally across the country. 30% of aboriginal Maoris also attend.

Norway

1913 – vote for women
1991 – 44% of women have income. Parents pay 20% of daycare costs. There are 20 days parental leave for sick children. There are 28 weeks of full pay for mat leave. Birth rate is 13 per 1000. Family allowance increases with larger families
1997 – household income tax or individual as requested
1998 – announced tax breaks for parents at home
1998- child care allowance is a cash grant to families whose children are not in daycare. It amounts to $6,800 per year ($570 a month)
1998 – seek gender equalit at home and at paid work
giving long parental leave for both parents, flex hours,
part-time paid work, family leave (CPRN)
1999- Govt gives 42 weeks of parental leave at full wage and the father is entitled to 4 weeks of this period
families with children under 3 will be paid $570 a month if the parent is home with the child
1998- cash benefit to fund care of every child 1-3 years at USD 420 a month for all children not in subsidized care centres to give families time to be with children and ‘freedom of choice’ in chid-rearing options. Birth rates have since increased.
2000- children in poverty 3.9%
2000 – pensions rights are being given for unpaid care work
2000 -there are more flexible work hours permitted
2001- 80% of a year at full pay for mat leave
annual paid holiday leave of 4 weeks
full year off at 80% pay for new mothers or share leave time with father
and both work reduced hours for pay for up to 3 years
During first 6 weeks new mothers are not allowed to return
to paid work
Mother who had no paid income before gets a one-time cash
benefit
Breastfeeding mothers get one hour less paid work requirement per day so they can
breastfeed (or 2 hours per day if public worker)
2001 – cash bonus to families of children under 3 who are not in licensed daycare ($300 per month per child) Some women use this income to hire babysitter and do paid work parttime
2001 – cash subsidy to parents who do not use external care services (Family Observer)
2003- paid work year is under 1444 paid hours (US is 1815)
2003- minister of children’s affairs announces that few dads are taking paternity leave despite the 1978 law to allow it, so a paternity quota has been introduced in 1993 reserving 4 weeks for the father if both mother and father qualify. By 2003 80% of new fathers take paternity leave.
2003- mat leave for 6 months at 50% pay

Peru
1993 – over 50% of population lives in poverty
1993 – daycare parents pay some fees for under 3 year olds .There are family dayhomes

Philippines –
1997 – heads of statistics agencies begin to measure and value unremunerated work of women through a satellite account
2002- health stations provide clean water, iodized salt and medical care, vitamins and advice to parents

Portugal
1997 –household income is taxed or individual base, as taxpayer chooses
`1998- there is no family allowance but there are tax credits for children and other dependents. There is no universal child benefit
2001-paid one hour minimum nursing breaks are required for mothers who work outside the home


Russia
1996 – there are supplementary pesions and tax breaks for women with 4 or more children

Sierra Leone

2004 – One in six mothers dies in childbirth.




Singapore

2003 – offers a baby bonus of $9,000 for second child and $18,000 for third child paid over 6 years to help defray costs of raising children. There is a cash gift at first and then a cosavings component in a special bank account matching dollar for dollar the amount parents save for child’s development. The money can be used for daycare or home-based care
South Africa
1980 – gives more per child in large families
2004- Roger Neugebauer of Child Care Information International reports that child care centres are losing teachers to the AIDS epidemic faster than new teachers can be trained

Spain
1931- women got the vote but then lost it in 1936
1977 – women regained the vote
1980 – financed family allowance through 12.1% of payroll
1981 – divorce is legal after 2 years mutual agreement or 5 years of separation. Equal property division on divorce. Child support is not enforced (Doris Anderson)
1991 – 30.4% of women have income. 28% of women with a child under 10 have paid income. 2/3 of children aged 3-5 go to publicly funded primary school 9 hours daily. Parents pay according to income but can deduct some costs. 16 weeks of mat leave at 75% of salary and 10 weeks of it must be after birth. Breastfeeding time off is allowed. No unpaid parental leave for either parent. Parents with sick child under 6 may work shorter hours but for less pay. Unpaid two days leave if sick child. Birth rate is 11.2 per 1000.

-1997 –household or individual tax optional
1997 – legislation to measure and value unwaged work including work done by volunteers
‘1998- there is no family allowance and no family tax credit but there is a universal child benefit
2000 – Spanish National Institute of Statistics finds that 25% of women would like to have more children if they could balance career and family
2001- birth rate is 1.2
2001- paid min. one hour nursing breaks are required for moms who work outside the home (Moms for Milk)
2002 Michelin Co head suggests a family salary to enablee one member to stay home with child

Sri Lanka
1993 – home visits to teach the parents
-state does not fund taking child from parents

Sweden
1862 – wonen vote municipally
1919- women vote federally
1940s – government run child care begins
1980 – only 5% of children live in poverty
1980 –family allowance to age 19 if a student
1987 –child poverty rate is 4.7% (Shelley Phipps)

1989 – families pay 60% of their income in tax
1989- daycare system has centres ‘ on every corner’ ( Prof Ed Zigler). Child development centres for 85% of preschoolers. Costs vary per municipality but the average is $14,000 per child per year. Parents pay $1200 of that. There is no sliding scale. Government pays over 90% of the costs and the money goes directly to daycare centers not to parents. The government has even deleted the word ‘family’ replacing it with words cohabitation or household
1991 – personal tax rate is 28% (compared to 12.5% in Canada)
1991 – 4.7% of families with children live in poverty
1991 – 50% of women are in paid labor, 43% of them part-time.
Child care is on sliding fee scale. and partly funded by state. It is open 6:30 Am to 6:30 PM from age 1.5. Mat leave is till age 18 months with full pay. 85% of fathers take 10 days paternity leave. Birth rate is 19 per 1000. Instead of tax deductions for dependents, government pays bonuses and housing subsidies directly to families. A mother gets 485 krona (US $92) per month per child and more after 2 children. If father fails to pay support for child, the state pays and then collects it from the father
1993 – only half of the kids are in the publicly funded daycare
1996- large firm Ericsson is increasing family benefits to encourage men to be home with the children. The mobile phone company is giving mat and paternity leave benefits of 12 months off at 80% salary. In Sweden the government supplements child care and there is free university
1997 – individual tax only
1998 – seek gender equality at home and at paid work giving long parental leave for both parents, flex hours, paid family leave (CPRN)
1998- there is no family allowance but there are tax credits for married couples and lone parents. There is a universal child benefit and there is a lone parent supplement
1999 – child poverty rate is 2.7%
1999- govt gives reduced paid work hours to parents of children under age 8
1999- government funds moms at home at 80% salary for one year and includes parents at home in definition of child care. It gives 60 days of paid work at 80% salary per year to handle child sickness and funds for this come partly through a business tax
2000- child care leave act gives 450 days for child-bearing and child care, half for mother and half for father
2000- children in poverty 2.6%
2000- children are thought of as a social resource and a public as well as private responsibility. 40% of women earn part-time only. Family allowance is funded through general tax revenue. There are higher benefits for 3rd and later children (1.5x as much as for first child for 3rd, 2x for 4th, 2.5 x for fifth and later. Family allowance is paid monthly and not taxed
2000- women earn 89% of what men earn in wages
2000- single mothers not getting child support get publicly funded advance maintenance payments
2000- lone mother on welfare gets 109% of average worker wage
2001 –grants subsidy for children is not to just institutional carrier (Family Observer)
2001- parents have a voucher-type system for school education
2001- paid min. one hour nursing breaks are required for moms who work outside the home
2001- only half of the kids use the daycare system from birth though it is publicly funded
2003- government offers nearly two years of paid leave to care for a newborn. There are 96 weeks of leave at 80% salary

Switzerland –

1980 – family allowance to age 21 if a student
1989 – families pay 35 % income to tax
1997 – household tax on income
1997 – census includes questions on unwaged work and satellite accounts will be made to measure and value unwaged work
1998- Syndicat des Personnes Actives au Foyer assembles to value domestic and family-related work across Europe
1999- Swiss Civil Code says all persons are bound to contibute to the maintenance of relatives, ascendants and descendants in direct line as well as brothers an sisters, where without such assistance they would be impoverished.
1999 – census counts unpaid work
2001- government is considering pension credit for those who provide child or elder care (Pro John Myles U of T)
2003- only 57% of women work outside the home and 58% of those choose part-time not full-time paid work. Voters in Zurich school want to set primary school hours to limit time children spend there to encourage women to have family lives and to standardize hours across the country for ease for parents

Trinidad/Tobago

1995 private members’ bill to include unpaid work
of homemakers in Gross National Product
1997 – measured unpaid work


Tunisia

1998- mat leave is 30 days


UK

1918 – women in Britain got vote if over 30 and property owners
1928 – all women got the vote
1977- family allowance to each child (it used to be given to one child only) and its amount increased following a women’s day rally in 1973 asking for more money
1980- government spends 23% of its GDP on social programs
1999 – constructing household satellite accounts
to measure and value unwaged work
1980 – gives more family allowance per child
in large families
family allowance goes to age 19 if a student

‘1987 – child poverty rate is 16.6% (Shelley Phipps)
1997 – tax based on individual only
1991 – 53% of women with school aged children have paid employment. 37% of moms with children under age 5 had paid employment . Most women use care by relatives, friends or home care for 5-10 year olds after school Less than one percent use formal care. There are 11 weeks of mat leave before birth and 29 after, 6 weeks paid at 90% of earnings and the rest at a lower rate. To get mat leave you need to have had 2 years full time paid employment or 5 years part-time with same employer. There is no parental leave except to care for sick child. Birth rate is 13.6 per 1000
1997 – child poverty rate is 17.9%
1997 –beginning to construct household satellite accounts to measure and value unwaged work
1998-tax based on individual income but a married couple can share personal and married couple allowance. Any income from jointly owned property can be split
1999- PM Tony Blair begins National Child Care strategy –extending parental and paternity leaves and increasing child benefit allowances 80% since 1997.
2000- children in poverty 19.8%
2000 – childminders earn 6300 pounds a year while nannies earn 7800 to 20,000 pounds. Full time daycare under age 2 costs 7000 pounds per year,higher in London, up to 17,600 pounds a year.
2000- poll of 2000 British mothers finds that 81% would prefer to be home to take care of their infants
2000- Parental Law Directive allows 13 weeks unpaid mat leave but this program has excluded 3.3 million parents because it only applies to children born after Dec 15 1999. Cherie Blair’s law firm leads the challenge to the law (wife of PM)
2002 – employers have a legal duty to offer 2 weeks paid paternity leave and to consider request for flex time from new fathers
2003 – average paid work year is 1707 paid hours (1815 in US)
2003- Finance minister Gordon Brown suggests every British child get $550 trust fund invested at interest and given to him in cash on his 18th birthday. Children of the poor would get $1100 at the start.
2003 Birth rate in Scotland is so low Jack McConnell , first minister tries to lure foreign grad students to stay in the country.
2004- ¼ of children under age 8 are in daycare. 28% of children live in poverty (daycare trust)

US

1919 – women got the vote
1982 – no mother’s allowance for at home moms, Employed parents can claim child care expenses incurred as a result of employment. You can also claim the tax benefit if the child is cared for by a relative in a private home (in Canada kin-care is denied tax breaks in most provinces)
`1987 – child poverty rate is 15.4%
1988- welfare to work program requires people to do paid work in order to get state help.

1989 – familes pay 35% of their income to tax
1990- 33 million mothers have paid employment, 33% of all mothers.. Only 7% of families have one parent at home with the other parent earning full time outside the home
1990- average parent spend 17 hours per week with child, down from 30 hours in 1965 (decrease of 40%)
1991 – 25.4% of families with children live in poverty
1991- 44.8% of women have income, 26% of whom work for pay part-time only. There is no national child care policy. ¾ of all children are looked after by neighbors and relatives. There is no federal mat leave but 28 states grant some. Birth rate is 16 per 1000. Divorce is a state not federal issue. 2/3 of divorced women get no child support (Doris Anderson)
1991 – number of dads at home is 20% compared to 15% in 1988 (Vobejda. ) Two million men are the principal child care providers and nearly 3 million men spend some time providing care of child while women earn
1993-poverty rate is 2-3 times that of European countries (McQuaig). Poverty rate for children in single parent families is ten times higher than in Sweden. US does not provide free medical care to pregnant women, (70 other nations do). It provides only unpaid maternity leave (100 nations provide paid mat leave). It does not fund child-rearing (most European nations do)
1996 –4 optional tax rates exist - for single, married filing separately,
married filing jointly, or head of household. Different
deductions for each category also
1996 – Census Bureau says mothers directly provide care of 53% of US children under age 5. 49.9% are at home with child and 3% care for child while at paid job. 7.8% of children are cared for by parents in tag-team. Dads at home account for 1.5% of kids. 12.3% of kids are in care by relatives.
1997 –Census Bureau finds that 28.8% of married couples with chilren under age 18 have one parent at home. 25.9% of all families have a mom at home. Of the 74.1% of families with both parents employed for pay 46.3% of mothers earn part-time only. 60.2% of all families have a mom at home full-time or part-time

1997 – Depts of Labor and Commerce begin to measure and value unwaged work
1997 – Bureau of Labor Stats says 63% of women with children under 65 have personal income though of them though not all earn full-time.. Stats include women who earn while at home
1997 – there is a $500 tax credit for children under 17

1998 –you can claim care by relative as a child
care expense
1998- President Clinton introduced a $21.7 billion child care plan, increasing dependent care tax credit for families earning under $60,000, and offering a tax credit to businesses that provide child care for employeees, expanding after-school care and funding child care research.
1998- Senator Christopher Dodd introduced with Senator John Chaffee a proposal to give a dependent care tax credit for parents at home.
1998- Family Friendly Tax Relief Act provides $500 per child tax credit more for children under age 5 for at home parents who do not claim dependent care tax credit and for those who use kin –based care.
1998- Congress passed unanimously Feb 11 resolution to acknowledge importance of at-home parents and its will to not discriminate against families who forego a second income in order for a parent to be home with the child
1998 – married couples can choose indiv or joint tax and there are five rates but ceilings differ for each category 15, 28 31, 36 and 39.6% tax rates)
1999 – child poverty rate is 22.7%
1999- there are 66 provisions in the Internal Revnue Code that cause married couples to pay higher tax than unmarried coupels
2000- children in poverty 22.4%
1999- marriage tax penalty continues.. If married couple files jointly they get fewer deductions than if they file individually. Single deduction is $4400 but married dual deduction is $7350 (not $8800). Lowest tax bracket for individuall is 15% at $26,250 but for couples it is for $43,850 (not $52,500) The two problems have been called a marriage tax penalty.
2000-the marriage tax penalty is removed. The standard deduction for married couples has been made double that of singles.
2000- 55% of mothers of infants have income, down from 59% in 1998 (The Motherhood Project)
2000- Public Agenda announces that nearly 70% of parents surveyed prefer to be home with a child when the child is young
2001- Dept of Health and Human services considers law to categorize a fetus as a targeted low-income child so the poor could get access to prenatal care even if they had no health insurance
2001- Pres Bush proposes a partially refundable child tax credit of up to $600 per child, rising to $1000 per child by 2010.The credit is for those with family incomes over $10,000 and is ten per cent of family income over that amount. For family income of $15,000 the credit is $500)
2001- some states give ‘earned income credits’ while others do not. For those raising children under age 6 California, Georgia and Mass spend over $200 per child while Idaho, Montana and Nevqada spend under $20 per child.
2002- child and dependent care tax provision
expenses of $3,000 per child or $6,000 for two or more and
can be claimed by low family families–up to 20-35% of expense
2002 – number of mothers of infants who also have paid income drops to 55% from 59% in 1998
2002- 25 %of kids under age 15 have an at-home parent, up from 23% in 1994
2002- number of at-home dads is up 18% since 1994
2002 – California gives disability compensation to care for a new child, sick or injured family member newly adopted child or a child new to foster care. Spouses and domestic partners are eligible. The program is funded entirely by employees not employers and costs them each under $3 a month. This paid family leave plan gives 6 weeks of paid leave per year at up to 55% of wages. Small businesses of under 50 employees do not have to hold the job open.
2002- Nat Centre for Children in Poverty reveals 37% of US kids live in low income families and 16% live below poverty line
2002 – US women note an increase in birth rate to 2.13 babies over a lifetime, the highest in 30 years
2002 –Head Start program is given less funding and the Early Learning Opportunities Act is eliminated. Current average child care provider earns $16,350 US and in 30 states needs no formal training
2002- 25% of four year olds are in Head Start or other state-funded prekindergraten. In West Virginia there is universal prekindergarten for 5 year olds required but there is no funding provided for it.
2002 – Work Opportunity and Responsibility for Kids Act gives $5.5 billion more to daycare users from low income families
2002- 37% of American children live in low income families -40% of families with children under age 6. 16% of children live in poverty, 17% o f them being under age 6. US child poverty rate is 2-3 times higher than that of most other Western industrialized nations
2003 – basic personal exemption varies per income tax style (household, individual). Every person also gets standard exemption of $23,000. There is a child tax benefit tied to paid employment of parent but it can be claimed off either parent’s income not required to be claimed off the lower earner income (as in Canada). US progressive tax rates advance more slowly than in Canada and top level is not reached till household income is $100,000.
2002-5.6 million kids live in the same home as grandparents (3.7 are living in the grandparent’s home)
2003 Economic roundtable Daniel Fleming says government rushes parents into low paid jobs rather than giving them education and training

2003- child tax credit proposal gives 6 times as much to the rich as to the poor. Demonstrations against it by Children’s Defense Fund
2003 – Bush administration plans to cut Head Start preschool funding
2003 – child poverty is up due to job loses and program cutbacks. Nat Center for Children in Povety says working poor face financial crisis with high rent, health care, food and utilities costs.
2003 – average paid work year is 1815 hours (1444 in Germany)
2003- Pres Bush cuts daycare spaces and after school services. Welfare proposal requires mothers to work outside the home for longer hours than earlier. Preschools for the disabled have funding cuts. .
2003- US raises the child tax credit from $600 in 2002 to $1000 for any child under 17 for household income under $110,000 or for single parents earning under $75,000. Adopted children get a $10,160 deduction. There is a dependent care credit for child care costs for those under age 13. Parents can get back 20-30% of the first $24000 they spend at daycare or day camp not requiring both parents to have paid income. The single income family in the US can have two IRAs (Not just one as in Canada). A nonearning spouse can put away up to $3,000-$3500 per year for their own retirement. If you operate a small business you can put your children on the payroll as long as the task is a normally paid task and then the wages can be deducted. The child can earn under $4,000 tax free.

2003- US gives 12 weeks unpaid mat leave and only to mothers in companies of over 50 employees
2004- Congress announces plans to create a savings account for every child at birth, of $500 plus $500 more for those in poverty and families are encouraged to add to the account. Under the ASPIRE Act savings can be used for post secondary , put towards home purchase or used for retirement.

Vietnam

1998 – mat leave is 120-180 days, one of the longest internationally at the time. It is funded 100% by social security

Yemen
1996 – child care is the responsibility of the grandmother so the mother can earn

Yugoslavia
1980 – family allowance goes to age 26 if a student

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